Patterns of interaction, feedback, hypermedia, course and web2.0January 8, 2007
Part of my tasks at work is to think of patterns in elearning settings..web 1.0 and 2.0 situations. Here are some sets of patterns that are of interest. The descriptions of these patterns do not apply the activity theory framework in the sense of using hierarchical elements for describing the workflows of the patterns. We aim to use operations-actions to describe activities = the patterns that take place at instructional settings. Pattern structure and sample code should be of interest to develop designs that support learning activities.
Patterns of Interaction:a Pattern Language for CSCW
Ten activity patterns were described with the elements of pattern language.
1. Artefact as an audit trail
an artefact can serve as a stratified record of work
the artifact serves as a means of coordination between workers allowing them to locate who has done what work and therefore assisting in remedying problems and so forth
2. Multiple representations of information
the alternative representations of the data provide different views which may be particulary suiatble for certain tasks
also allows some task separation and redundancy in the system as the same information may be available in different views to a number of workers
3. Public artefact
public artefact (for example, a large display monitor, notice board) which serves as a shared object which provides a group of workers with some form of overall perspective on their activity
4. Accounting for an unseen artefact
the artefact is unavailable to the second actor as communication is through a remote channel
5. Working with interruptions
Interruptions are viewed as a commonplace feature of work and one which has both negative and positive consequences depending on the setting
6. Collaboration in small groups
collaboration is facilitated by seating arrangements and various artefacts
seating arrangements, shared artefacts (e.g. public artefact) and so forth promote forms of teamwork amongst groups engaging in tightly coupled or shared activities
7. Reception(ist) as a hub
a receptionist can serve as a coordination point between the internal operations of a company and the external world of customers, clients and so forth
8. Doing a walkabout
may be a directed or undirected activity in which a worker wanders around a site or areas of a site as a way of gathering information about what is going on, what others are doing or to find out the actual situation at locations on the ‘shop floor’, or to ‘keep in touch’
9. Overlapping responsibilities
workers clearly have a continual egological (what is my work in relation to other’s work) and alteriological (what can I do to make other’s work easier) orientation in their work
this allows for workers to take over the tasks and responsibilities of others with a certain degree of fluidity
10. Assistance through experience
workers progress through roles with increasing complexity and responsibility
workers in the uppermost roles which involve, for example, coordination and supervision have thoroughgoing knowledge and experience of positions below their present standing and therefore, how these different ‘sub-roles’ work to compose the overall activity
1. First Feedback
give the participants activities that exercise their knowledge and then give them feedback on their performance
2. Positive Feedback First
when you give feedback, start and end with positive feedback
3. Differentiated Feedback
The feedback to a student is tailored to the needs of that student.
4. Early Warning
give them Early Warning when you see that they are headed for trouble
5. Explain It Yourself
invite the students to express the key ideas using their own words
6. Try it Yourself
take a break in the presentation and ask the students to perform an exercise that requires them to understand the new topic
7. Self Test
let the students apply the theory by answering a self-test after they have heard the theory once before revisiting the theory another time or moving on to the next key ideas
8. Peer Feedback
invite the students to evaluate the artifacts of their peers.
9. Embrace Correction
give the students the chance to improve their artifacts
10. Student Online Portfolios
provide a means for students to publish their best work, perhaps on the web. The more public this can be, the better it is
11. Gold Star
when a student is doing well, or has done something well, praise them publicly for it
12. Kind of Exam
use different kinds of exams
13. Mock Exam
give the students a chance to prepare for the exam by permitting them to take a trial exam
14. Fair Grading
publish your minimum grading standard and stick to it.
15. Key Ideas Dominate Grading
the key ideas, not necessarily the hardest material, should be worth the most points in your grading
16. Grade it again Sam
permit your students to change and re-submit an assignment for re-evaluation and re-grading, after you have graded it and provided feedback
17. One Grade For All
grade the team’s work based on a presentation, which may be given by any member of the team
18. Fair Team Grading
base part of the grade on the team product, but part of it on individual contributions
19. Peer Grading
make it possible for students to provide part of the grade for other students
20. Fair Project Grading
divide up the evaluation into different components, each of which will be given an independent grade
21. Acquire Participants’ Feedback
invite the participants to provide feedback on your teaching style
22. Anonymous Feedback
provide an Anonymous Feedback channel with which your students can communicate with you
23. Abstraction Gravity
introduce a concept at its highest level of abstraction and use reflection on the concept to link the higher-level abstraction to the lower one
24. Build and Maintain Confidence
present a problem taken from the domain of the students. Provide some hints via questions that have to be answered and that may lead to a solution
25. Explore for Yourself
assign topics to the students that they have to learn on their own and ask them to present the topic afterwards
26. Different Approaches
provide different approaches to the same topic.
28. One Concept Several Implementations
use several different implementations of the concept as examples while teaching the abstract concept.
29. Reduce Risk
take effective action to reduce your student’s risk of course failure
30. Round Robin
use a round robin technique to solicit suggestions – get everyone’s participation and input and you especially want to encourage the quieter members to take a more active role
31. Solution Before Abstraction
give the students an example of the problem in a setting that they are comfortable with
organize the course to introduce topics to students without covering them completely at first viewing, instructor can return to each topic, perhaps repeatedly, giving more of the information needed to master them
33. Team Mixup
you choose the teams, pulling names from a hat will work
Fourteen Pedagogical Patterns
Most of them are design patterns suitable for construction tasks
1. Early Bird – see ealrlier
2. Spiral – see earlier
3. Consistent Metaphor
Create a metaphor that is consistent with the topic being taught, and with the same basic elements that interact in the same way. Give this to the students as a way to think about the topic. The metaphor must allow students tomake valid inferences about the topic by thinking about the metaphor.
4. Toy Box
Prepare application skeletons, each of which is from some key area such as as database or spreadsheet. Each skeleton forms the framework for student activities and exercises and each embodies in the simplest possible way the key idea of that key area.
5. Tool Box
Student exercises have multiple parts. One part of each exercise is to build a general tool that might be useful in other projects and to take some effort in its proper formulation for reuse. The design for reuse must be explicit and must be discussed by the students and commented on by the instructor. Groups of students can combine individual designs of the tools, discuss the relative merits of each and then build a common implementation that improves each of the individual designs.
6. Lay of the Land
Give students a large artifact to examine early in the course. They can see what it is that they are supposed to be about in that course and what kinds of things they will be expected to master. The artifact should have the complexity of something you would like them to be able to produce at the end. Spend time examining the parts and their interactions.
7. Fixer Upper
Give students an artifact, such as a program or design. The artifact proposes to be the solution to a problem, but while generally correct, the instructor has purposely introduced flaws into the program, design, or whatever. The artifact should be fairly large and should contain a number of flaws. Most of the flaws should be simple and obvious to most readers. There should be one or two deeper flaws. Ask the students to find and correct the flaws. Ask them to discuss the nature of the flaws found and the reasons for their changes. Finally, ask them to discuss the overall structure of the artifact and draw inferences from it.
8. Larger Than Life
Give the students access to large programs and designs well before they have the ability to produce them. These artifacts can be used as the basis of exercises. Students can make small modifications to large programs and they can extend them in simple ways early on.
9. Student Design Sprint
Divide the students into groups. Give them a design problem and ask the teams to produce a design outline in 15 minutes. There should be a written sketch of the design in that time. The instructor can look over shoulders and comment or not, but few hints should be given. Questions should be answered freely. At the end of 15 minutes, the instructor poses a set of questions about the designs without asking for answers. The questions should be such that they cannot be favorably answered by some set of poor designs. The students are then regrouped by combining pairs of nearby groups, so that you now have groups of 4 or five students and each group has two of the original designs. The task is now modified slightly and the groups are asked to produce a new design. After another 15 minutes the instructor again poses a set of questions for thought, regroups the students again into still larger groups, modifies the task slightly and again puts the students to work. This can continue for as many cycles as the instructor wishes. At the end, the instructor should evaluate the resulting designs and make comments.
Ask students to produce an artifact with certain specific errors (usually a single error). The effect of the error is then explored.
11. Test Tube
Give the students several exercises in which they are asked to write small programs to get the computer to answer simple questions of the form “What happens if…”. These exercises should be frequent enough that students get in the habit of probing the machine for what it does, rather than the documentation.
12. Fill in the Blanks
Prepare a very well designed program or part of a program and remove a few pieces of the code. Give the result to students with instructions to fill in the missing parts. The missing parts need to be well specified. It is also best if the result will be put to some use immediately so that students can see the effect of their work.
13. Gold Star – see earlier
14. Grade it Again Sam – see earlier
Patterns for experiental learning
1. ABSTRACTION GRAVITY – FROM HIGH TO LOW
2. SOLUTION BEFORE ABSTRACTION
3. ONE CONCEPT – SEVERAL IMPLEMENTATIONS
4. EXPERIENCING IN THE TINY, SMALL AND LARGE
introduce the concept in three stages, tiny, small and large, which allow you to monitor the students’ progress on a topic-by-topic – tiny – basis, to test if the student can combine the topics and apply them in a larger – small – setting and to solve a real-world – large – problem using all parts of the concept, thus seeing the big picture gradually
5. SEE BEFORE HEAR
give learners the opportunity to see and experience a new concept before they hear about it
6. BUILD AND MAINTAIN CONFIDENCE
7. BUILT-IN FAILURE
remove the fear of failure as a barrier to learning by making failure a part of the learning process
pattern is based on Kent Beck’s Three Bears Pattern
8. THREE BEARS
ask the learner to create solutions that lie at both extremes, as well as at some balance point. The extreme answers will certainly be ‘wrong‘ for the given problem, but they give the learner permission to explore the boundaries of the continuum.
9. MISSION IMPOSSIBLE
present the learner with a problem that seems straightforward to solve but whose complete solution requires a much deeper understanding than the basic concepts afford.
10. EXPOSE THE PROCESS
when showing examples or “ideal” solutions to exercises, also show
and explain the process of getting there. Show the critical decision points to the
students and allow them to make their own proposals on how to go on.
11. STUDENT DESIGN SPRINT
12. ROUND ROBIN
Patterns for gaining different perspectives
1. Different Approaches – see earlier
2. Consistent Metaphor
create a metaphor that is consistent with the topic being taught, and with the same basic elements that interact in the same way. Give this to the students as a way to think about the topic. The metaphor must allow students to make valid inferences about the topic by thinking about the metaphor.
3. Physical Analogy
illustrate the dynamic properties of the abstract concept in a concrete way. Create a physical analogy with the use of visual things such as inanimate objects or people and/or other memorable things such colorful scenarios.
4. Role Play
invite your students to behave as a part of the concept involved in a role play. Every student plays one part of the concept to get a deeper knowledge for its underlying structure. Students see how the different parts of the concepts are all working together to solve a bigger problem.
provide an environment that allows discovery and not one that is limited to answering questions. Let the students uncover solutions for complex problems by drawing on their own experience.
6. Explore for Yourself – see earlier
7. Spiral – see earlier
8. Linking Old to New
use an old wrapper to introduce new information. This will help the learner to recognize what she already knows and to make associations between the new information and existing knowledge. Anchor the new information by relating it to what is already known.
9. Test Tube – see earlier
Active learning patterns
1. ACTIVE STUDENT
keep the students active. They should be active in class, either with questions or with exercises. They should be active out of class.
2. DIFFERENT EXERCISE LEVELS
provide exercises of different difficulty levels, Different Approaches [BEMW], different topics etc.
3. STUDENTS DECIDE
involve the participants in the planning of the course, or suggest some alternatives at the beginning of the course. Give them a voice in choosing among the alternatives.
4. HONOR QUESTIONS
motivate the participants to ask questions, by ensuring that there are no stupid questions. Show them how to ask questions.
5. TEST TUBE -see earlier
6. TRY IT YOURSELF – see earlier
7. PREFER WRITING
choose writing exercises over reading exercises. It is best if the students publish what they write: for example in a Student Online Portfolio [EBS]. Work published online invites comments and comments invite rewrites. Use writing to engage students with their readings.
emphasize group work in your courses. Use both large and small groups. Use both long-lived (weeks) and short-lived (minutes) groups.
9. ROLE PLAY – see earlier
10. WAR GAME
create time-compressed simulation games designed to highlight the issues of concern. Assign different roles to learners in the group. Simulate the passage of time and the arbitrary nature of uncontrolled contexts by revealing significant “events” at specific intervals much in the way Give learners either individual or group goals to achieve in the game – in competition with each other if appropriate. Include a debriefing session at the end to draw out more explicitly the lessons learned.
11. INVISIBLE TEACHER
make the participants the focal point of the course. If a problemb occurs direct them to their peers, to ask their peers for help
12. SHOT GUN SEMINAR
identify a topic for research and encourage everyone in the group to research the topic. Choose the presenter by random ballot at the beginning of the scheduled presentation time. Restrict the timing for the initial delivery.
13. STUDENT DESIGN SPRINT
14. EXPLORE FOR YOURSELF
15. STUDY GROUPS
form your students into study groups, perhaps through TEACHER SELECTS TEAMS, and guide them if necessary to find a strategy for accomplishing the task.
16. TEACHER SELECTS TEAMS
you choose the teams. This facilitates swapping of ideas among the peers and actively learning from others’ experiences.
ask the students to improve and extend artifacts from their peers. In order to do so, they have to comprehend the way in which their assigned peers have approached their task.
18. REAL WORLD EXPERIENCE
involve the students in real world situations, by inviting them to accomplish a project in a real world environment
19. LARGER THAN LIFE
20. EXPAND THE KNOWN WORLD
ntroduce the concept by explicitly linking it to experiences that you know the students have already.
give students a model created by someone else and ask them to determine its completeness and correctness.
Course patterns – interesting approach for me
#0 Design-Implement-Redesign-Reimplement (DIRR) Pattern
#1 Concrete to Abstraction
#2 Reading, Critique, Lecture, Activity, Presentation with discussion (RCLAP)
#3 Lecture-Examples-Activity-Student Presentation-Evaluation
#4 Brainstorming Pattern
#5 Role Playing Pattern
#6 Round Robin Pattern
#10 Programming in the Tiny, Small, Large (TSL) Pattern
#11 Explore-Present-Interact-Critique (EPIC) Pattern
#12 “What did you eat for breakfast?”
#13 Design-Do-Redo-Redo (DDRR) Pattern
#14 Peer Review and Corrective Maintenance (PRCM)
#15 Preparation, Industrial Presentation and Roundtable (PIPR)
#16 Physical Analogy
#17 The Three Bears Pattern
#18 Discussion-Activity-Review-Lab-Review Pattern
#19 Gagne’-Ausbel Pattern of Lecture (GAP) Pattern
#20 Identity Pattern
#21 Mission Impossible Pattern
#22 Simulation Game Workshop Pattern
#23 Model and Implement Pattern
#24 Client-Server-Negotiation (CSN) Pattern
#25 BASE-and-Supplementary-Languages in Lectures (BSLL) Pattern
#26 Educational Paradigm Factory Pattern
#28 Using Design Patterns as a context in which to teach Fundamental Components of Object Oriented Systems
#29 Using Design Patterns to teach the concept behind a complex framework
#31 Audio Object Analogies Pattern
#37 Computer Ad Face-off Pattern
#38 Class Concept Map Pattern
#39 Group Card Sorting Pattern
#40 Team Teaching Pattern
#41 Assigning and Grading (short) Team Projects Pattern
#42 In-Line Exercises (ILE) Pattern
#43 Model Transformation (MT) Pattern
#44 Responsibility Driven Class Development Pattern
#45 Concept, Glossary, Problem, Analyze, Discuss, Design (CoG-PADD) Pattern
#46 Big Picture on a Small Scale (BPSS) Pattern
#47 Simple and Complete Patterns Step by Step
#48 Academic To Industrial Project Link (LINK) Pattern
#49 Project Reuse Pattern (Reuse) Pattern
#51 Sneak preview
#56 Expose The Process
#59 Round and Deep
Hypermedia patterns 1997-2000.
1. Structured Answer
Provide the user with a more structured result that organizes the information such that it is easier to help the user decide which choice is the most suitable. Such additional information may be grouped in different categories.
2. Simple Search Interface
one field, no operators – that will satisfy a very large proportion of users; in addition, provide a link to a more refined search interface, where all the “bells and whistles” are available.
3. Set-Based Navigation
To move on to another node, one will have to backtrack to the index to find another target.
Provide intra-set navigation controls to help the user get the “next” and “previous” element while he is traversing the set. Combine Set-based navigation with proper indexes to make exploration easier.
4. Selectable Search Space
Provide the user with a mechanism to select which category (sub-space) the user is going to search into. Allow users select only one search category at a time. Allow users to combine search areas.
5. Selectable Search Engine
When developing a Web information system, link it to an existing search engine that allows external websites
6. Selectable Keywords
Provide the user with a list of the possible keywords, according to the search already performed by the user. He should be able to include any combination of the suggested keywords without typing
place a list of keywords near the field in which he user enters the keywords to perform search; this list should be selectable and combinable
7. Process Feed-Back
Provide a constant perceivable feedback about the status of the operation that is being carried out, indicating progress in the case of non-atomic operations. Analyze which operations are atomic and do not need to be tracked. For non-atomic operations, give information about the current status: beginning, progression and ending of the operation.
8. Opportunistic Linking
improve the linking topology by suggesting new products to explore from a given one. Use relationships with strong semantics to make the user feel confortable. Take into account that many of these links may change from day to day so that the interface should be defined accordingly. Notice that this pattern can also be used at the conceptual level to derive new relationships. However the intent is clearly navigational: keep the user navigating in a pleasant way.
9. Node as a Navigational View
Define a navigational layer between the application to be enhanced an its graphical interface, build up of object’s observers that are called nodes, Implement the navigational behavior in nodes.
Structure the home page in such a way a space is devoted to the newest additions, presenting descriptive “headlines” regarding them. Use those headlines as anchors to link them with their related pages.
11. Navigational Context
Navigational contexts are composed of a set of Nodes (like Books or Inventions) and Context Links (links that connect objects in a context). Nodes are decorated with additional information about the particular context and additional anchors for contexts links.
12. Navigation Strategy
A hypermedia system should allow the creation of hand-made links as well as computed links. Hand-made links may be created by readers while navigating, in order to define a relationship meaningful for them.
Defining a separate hierarchy of navigation strategies: fixed endpoints, computed endpoints, dangling endpoints and lazy end-point creation
13. Information-Interaction Coupling
Provide control channels close to the data that each affects, either by menus or buttons
14. Information on Demand
when a node has an amount of information to be perceived by the reader that does not fit in one screen all together, or may distract the user’s attention
Present only a sub-set of the attributes, the most important ones, and let the user control which further information is presented in the screen, by providing him active interface objects
15. Information Factoring
when it is necessary to refer to related concepts
Activate those nodes of related information inside the current node. The user sees this “in-place activation” as a pop-up window that generally can be easily dismissed
16. Info-Interaction Decoupling
When too many anchors are provided in a text, the reader is distracted and cannot take profit of all of them.
Separate the input communication channels from the output channels, by grouping both sets separately. Allow the “input interaction group” to remain fixed while “the output group” reacts dynamically to the control activation.
17. Index Navigation
solution consists of defining links from the entry point of the collection, to each member, and from each member to the entry point.
including in each member the links to all other members of the collection, so that the user can jump directly from each member to another, without returning to the collection entry point.
18. Hybrid Collection
Combine the solution of patterns “Index Navigation” and “Guided Tour Navigation”.
19. Here I am
Make all active elements sensitive to mouse presence to make them reveal themselves to the user as an available command that can be activated if clicked in that moment.
20. Guided Tour
identifying an order among the collection members, and creating sequential links among them. Links can be one-way or two-ways (forward or backward)
21. Complex Entity
Conceptually break the complex object into smaller information components
A component is an information piece which should be autonomously consumed but conceptually strictly dependent on the semantic framework
One component has to become the entity representative component. This component plays the role of symbolize the meaning of the entity and so making immediate for the user to realize to have reached a certain entity type
22. Collection Center
For simple collection it can be sufficient to provide the collection title and expressive anchors (place-holders) for the members. Link anchors have the double role of illustrating the collection content and also providing a navigation mechanism.
23. Behaviour Anticipation
Provide feedback about the effect of activating each interface element.
24. Behavioral Grouping
how to organize control Objects (such as anchors, buttons, etc.) to produce a meaningful interface. Group control interface objects according to their functionality in global, contextual, structural and application objects, and make each group to enhance comprehension
25. Analyse Organise Synthesize
For ease of access and distribution these components may be stored in a special purpose multimedia repository.
* Describe and represent
* Classify and index
The design of the advising facilities should not interfere with the global navigational structure
maintain an active and perceivable navigational object acting as an index for other navigational objects
Some activity patterns
NB! Only some of them are elaborated, but the list is promising.
1 INFORMATION AS COMMON PROPERTY
2 INFORMATION “IN ONE PLACE”
3 COHERE A COMMUNITY
4 DUAL-PURPOSE SPACE
5 ONGOING DEVELOPMENT **
6 NAMING IS PART OF DESIGNING **
7 FACILITATORS ARE THE KEY **
8 LIBRARIAN + DEVELOPER + USER
9 PUBLIC AND PRIVATE REGIONS **
10 PRIVATE REGION FOR WORK IN PROGRESS **
11 ‘MAKE PUBLIC’ CONTROL **
12 VIEWS AS INFORMATION FILTERS **
13 POST LATEST FIRST **
14 INTEGRATE EMAIL **
15 EAMLESS ACCESS **
16 POST MISSION CRITICAL INFORMATION **
17 EMAIL ALERTS **
18 EMAIL HYPERLINK **
19 LEARN FROM EACH OTHER
20 LEAD BY EXAMPLE **
21 SHARE RESOURCES
22 DOUBLE-LEVEL CLASSIFICATION **
23 POSTING EQUALS PARTICIPATION **
24 REPAIR CLASSIFICATION **
25 ASSIST POSTING **
26 KEYWORD SELECTOR **
Probably web 2.0 has quite new patterns…
The list of values suggested by o’Reilly does not fit under the crieria of patterns. Rather, it is the comparsion of what web 2.0 is and is not.
# implicity over Completeness
# Long tail over Mass Audience
# Share over Protect
# Advertise over Subscribe
# Syndication over Stickiness
# Early Availability over Correctness
# Select by Crowd over Editor
# Honest voice over Corporate Speak
# Participation over Publishing
# Community over Product
Here is another list by o’Reilly:
Web 2.0 Design Patterns
1) The Long Tail
2) Data is the Next Intel Inside
3) Users Add Value
4) Network Effects by Default
5) Some Rights Reserved.
6) The Perpetual Beta
7) Cooperate, Don’t Control
8 ) Software Above the Level of a Single Device
As long as these descriptions do not involve the elements of patterns, we should not call them patterns.
A good description of pattern elements is presented here:
Here is a list of social activities with social sofware: